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Name: Coruscant
Region: Core Worlds
Sector: Coruscant subsector, Corusca sector
System: Coruscant system
Suns: 1: Coruscant Prime
Orbital position: 6
Moons: 4 natural:3 Centax-1, Centax-2, Centax-3, Hesperidium, Many artificial satellites
Grid coordinates: L-9
XYZ coordinates: 0, 0, 0
Trade routes: Corellian Run, Koros Trunk Line, Martial Cross, Metellos Trade Route, Perlemian Trade Route, Shawken Spur
Distance from Core: 10,000 light years
Rotation period: 24 standard hours
Orbital period: 368 standard days
Class: Terrestrial
Diameter: 12,240 kilometers
Atmosphere: Type I (Breathable)
Climate: Temperate and controlled
Gravity: Standard
Primary terrain: Urban cityscape, Mountains
Surface water: Artificial reservoirs
Points of interest: Coruscant underworld, Galactic Museum, Great Western Sea, Imperial Palace, Jedi Temple, Manarai Mountains, Senate Building, University of Coruscant, The Works
Fauna: Cthon, Duracrete slug/worm, Gartro, Hawk-bat, Stratt, Thrantcill, Umrach
Native species: Humans (Zhell), Taung, Coruscani ogre
Immigrated species: Various
Primary language(s): Galactic Basic Standard, Old Galactic Standard
Government: Theocratic dictatorship (27–29 ABY), Galactic City Authority
Population: 1 trillion permanent residents
Demonym: Coruscanti
Major cities: Galactic City (capital)
Major imports: Foodstuffs & medicinal goods

Description: Coruscant, originally called Notron, also known as Imperial Center or the Queen of the Core, was a planet located in the Galactic Core. It was generally agreed that Coruscant was, during most of galactic history, the most politically important world in the galaxy. At various times, it was the capital of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire, the New Republic, the Yuuzhan Vong empire, the Galactic Alliance, very briefly the Fel Empire, Darth Krayt's Galactic Empire, and the Galactic Federation Triumvirate. In controlling Coruscant, these governments controlled most of the galaxy in the process.

Over the centuries, Coruscant had developed into an ecumenopolis, with a total of 5,127 levels of city built up from the crust by the time of the Clone Wars. The actual planet-wide metropolis of Coruscant was called Galactic City. Under the Galactic Republic, the names Republic City or the City of Spires were also used to reference the city. It was also called Imperial City under the Galactic Empire, and New Republic City under the New Republic. However, in practice, Galactic City and its other names were sometimes applied to the Senate District, the central government center and de facto capital of Coruscant. Under the Yuuzhan Vong, the city and planet were both referred to as Yuuzhan'tar.

Coruscant was a planet located in the Core Worlds. Located at the intersection of numerous major hyperlanes, including the Perlemian Trade Route, the Corellian Run, the Metellos Trade Route, the Koros Trunk Line, and the Leisure Corridor, its hyperspace coordinates were (0,0,0) which effectively made it the center of the galaxy. These coordinates also inspired the planet's military designation, "triple zero" or "Zero Zero Zero," though the actual galactic center was located in the Deep Core. As the de jure center of the galaxy, however, Coruscant was generally agreed to be the most important planet throughout most of galactic history, as well as being one of the wealthiest due to its advantageous location.

Coruscant served as the capital for the Galactic Republic, Galactic Empire, New Republic, Yuuzhan Vong Empire, Galactic Alliance, the Fel Empire, Darth Krayt's Galactic Empire, and the Galactic Federation Triumvirate. It also served at various times as the home of the Jedi Order and the Jedi Temple.

Geologically, the planet was composed of a molten core with a rocky mantle and a silicate rock crust. At its poles were huge ice caps that were popular spots for tourists. The entire surface of Coruscant was covered by sprawling kilometers-high ecumenopolis, and boasted a population of over a hundred billion to several trillion, depending on the era. Following the end of the Clone Wars, an official census noted 1 trillion official permanent residents. The statistics did not include transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace, nor residents of orbital facilities. Because of these omissions, the actual population of Coruscant was estimated to be three times the official record.
Coruscant was known to have the tallest buildings in the Galaxy. Coruscanti skyscrapers dwarfed all the original natural features, including mountains, as well as floors of oceans which once covered a large portion of Coruscant's surface. Areas of Galactic City were broken up into 5,127 levels which were then divided into megablocks, blocks, and subblocks.
Coruscant itself was divided into quadrants, which were divided into zones. Below the skyscrapers was Coruscant's undercity, where sunlight never reached. Artificial lighting illuminated these lower levels and advertisement holograms could be seen everywhere. There were numerous establishments for entertainment, catering to a myriad of alien species. The residents were collectively referred to as Twilighters.

Coruscant was once a world mostly covered in oceans. However, all natural bodies of water were drained and stored in vast caverns beneath the city as a result of years of overpopulation. The only body of water visible was the artificial Western Sea, with many artificial islands floating on it, used by tourists on holidays.
With no other bodies of water available to feed and water its trillion inhabitants, Coruscant's architects, along with many others from around the galaxy, worked together to build a self-contained eco-system in the massive buildings set all over the planet. Polar cap stations also melted ice and distributed water throughout the planet-wide city through a complex series of pipes.

Galactic City was divided into quadrants, several thousand in number, with each quadrant further split into sectors. Each sector was numbered on official maps, but sectors often had nicknames, such as Sah'c Town, also known as sector H-46, named for a prominent family that owned a large portion of its land, or The Works, the largest of Coruscant's designated industrial zones.

The Works was once one of the galaxy's major manufacturing areas, where starship parts, droids, and building materials were heavily produced for centuries, but as construction and industry became cheaper and more efficient and cheaper off-world, The Works fell into disrepair. The area gained a reputation as a hub of criminal activity and locals generally stayed away from it.
A similar, but more dangerous area, was the Factory District, which was once the industrial heart of Coruscant until it too lost out to competition from producers in other Core Worlds. By the time of the Great Jedi Purge, it lay in ruins and was almost completely deserted of sentients, because of the feral droids that prowled its streets. It was located on the opposite side of the planet, and was much more dangerous than the Southern Underground, Invisible Sector, which were infamous in their own right.
Another area of Coruscant was CoCo Town, an abbreviation of "collective commerce." Many diverse species lived there and worked in manufacturing. A partially enclosed open-air plaza near the Senate building, the Column Commons, was so-called because it housed most of the HoloNet and news media corporations.

A series of orbital mirrors were set up that reflected the sun's warmth and light. Several of these mirrors were destroyed during the Clone Wars, specifically the Battle of Coruscant. It is known that thunderstorms and rain occurred during 19 BBY and 3 ABY.

The planet produced trillions of tons of waste every hour. Though almost everything on the planet, from clothes to packaging and machinery was recyclable, some waste was too dangerous to recycle. Such items included worn-out hyperdrive cores which were delivered to one of the planet's five thousand garbage pits, where they were put into canisters and fired into a tight orbit around the planet. Garbage ships then collected them and transported them to nearby moons for storage. Some of the more dangerous materials were shot into the nearby sun for complete incineration. Garbage not exported or destroyed was mixed into a slurry of silicone oils and processed by garbage worms which chewed it into pellets while removing any remaining organics, plastic, or recoverable metals. They turned millions of tons of pellets into carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases.

Coruscant's enormous population and industrialization also produced massive amounts of carbon dioxide and heat energy. Thousands of carbon dioxide-reactive atmospheric dampeners were put into place in the upper atmosphere to prevent atmospheric degeneration. The first set of these planet-wide dampeners, developed by the Galactic Republic, was known as the Coruscant Atmospheric Reclamation Project.
Near the planet's core were a number of massive power relay stations. The lowest levels were abandoned to mutants and scavengers, such as the cannibalistic, mythical Cthon. The foundations of many of the buildings, some of which weighed billions of tons, also extended deep into the planet's crust.
Galactic Standard Time was developed on Coruscant and so was tied to the daily and yearly cycle of the planet. A standard day, like Coruscant, was made up of 24 hours, while a standard year's 368 days reflected the length of Coruscant's year.

History
Pre-Republic
Around 200,000 BBY, the planet Notron was home to two species: the grey-skinned Taung and the Zhell, the ancestors of the modern Humans. The Thirteen Nations of Zhell eventually came into conflict with the Taung, and the Battalions of Zhell fought the Taung in a fierce war. However, during a battle at the city of Zhell, a volcano erupted, and the Taung overran the terrified Zhell in the battle that followed. Taking the victory and the cloud of volcanic ash as a sign of divine favor, the Taung adopted the name Dha Werda Verda—the Warriors of Shadow. However, they were ultimately driven off of Notron to the planet Roon by the Zhell. The leaders of the Thirteen Nations were believed by archaeologists to have been buried near the planet's south pole, in the structure that became known as the Ice Crypts. Sometime around 100,000 BBY, the Columi species visited Notron—known by that time as Coruscant—though they dismissed the world as primitive and a disappointment.

Coruscant's Human natives began to urbanize their homeworld after the departure of the Taung, and archaeologists later believed that the historic Petrax Historic Quarter was the site of the planet's first skyscrapers. The Gree species also had contact with early Humans, building Coruscant's original infrastructure, and by the approximate date of 90,000 BBY, the ecumenopolis later known as Galactic City had begun to build upwards. As the Human population soared, they were forced to develop the first atmospheric scrubbers, delivery pipelines, recycling plants, and hydroponic farms, and instead of burying unrecyclable garbage, Coruscant's inhabitants built cannons that launched canisters of waste into orbit where garbage scows could tow them out of the star system.
Around 30,000 BBY, the Rakata species discovered Coruscant and incorporated it into their Infinite Empire. Some Humans were taken as slaves and put to work across the Empire, though the remaining Humans learned from their rulers' technology and developed sleeper ships. Over the next several centuries, the Coruscanti dispatched a number of sleeper ships, and by 27,500 BBY, their ships had established colonies on Metellos, Alsakan, Axum, Tepasi, Alderaan, Kuat, Rendili, Corfai, Corellia, and the worlds of the Ringali Shell region. Around 27,000 BBY, they launched ships even further, seeding the planets Barseg and Janilis VII in the distant Tion Cluster.
Around 25,200 BBY, the Infinite Empire collapsed due to infighting and a species-wide plague that afflicted the Rakata, and the Humans of Coruscant reclaimed rulership of their world. Around that time, they launched the sleeper ship Lokani Dawn. By 25,053 BBY, Coruscant had established contact with Alderaan, Duro, Corellia, and many other planets in the Core Worlds, and the planet was the site of the signing of the Galactic Constitution, which founded the Galactic Republic and named Coruscant the capital of the new government.

Capital of the Republic
The Republic's early years
Almost two centuries after the Lokani Dawn's launch, the people of Coruscant were dismayed to witness the vessel's destruction when the sleeper ship—which had been carefully watched by Coruscanti scientists for the last two centuries—was ripped apart by a meteor shower. The development of hyperspace cannons linked Coruscant to Alderaan, Duro, Corellia, and other worlds, but it was not until Corellian scientists succeeded in reverse-engineering the Rakatan hyperdrive around 25,000 BBY that starships could travel between the worlds of the Republic in a matter of days. Coruscant soon became the anchor for the newly charted Perlemian Trade Route, a major hyperlane that linked the Republic with the distant Tion Cluster—where the Human colonists had developed their own proud and warlike society. Coruscant also sat at the intersection of the Perlemian and the Spin, a hyperlane that wrapped around the Deep Core from Metellos to Corellia.

Around 25,000 BBY, the Perlemian Trade Route brought the Republic into contact with the Jedi Order on the distant planet Ossus, and after Jedi Master Haune Tiar toured the Republic, the Jedi became the government's protectors and established a presence on Coruscant. However, when the First Great Schism split the Jedi Order around 24,500 BBY, Coruscant was caught up in the conflict between the Jedi Order and the Dark Jedi of the Legions of Lettow, as a battle occurred on Coruscant during the fighting. Around 24,000 BBY, the Tionese War broke out with the Honorable Union of Desevro & Tion as the Tionese began a march of conquest along the Perlemian Trade Route. Between 24,000 and 23,900 BBY, the Tionese pushed deep into the Core Worlds, and even Coruscant itself was attacked—the Tionese bombarded Coruscant's city-surface with pressure bombs. As the centuries passed, Republic City—a district in Coruscant's eastern hemisphere near the Manarai Mountains—expanded outward, absorbing the planet's other districts and developing into the ecumenopolis of Galactic City.
As Coruscant grew more prosperous, the Core World of Alsakan began to grow jealous of the planet's place at the heart of the Republic. Alsakan was a major influence in the Human-dominated sectors along the Perlemian Trade Route, primarily the region known as the Northern Dependencies, while Coruscant was a powerful player in the Arrowhead and the Slice—the sections of the Core Worlds, the Colonies, the Inner Rim, and the Expansion Region that lay between the Perlemian to the north and the Spin to the south. The Spin was the original lifeline of the Republic, and because the Perlemian only intersected with the Spin at Coruscant, Alsakan and its dependents were largely independent from the rest of the Republic. The aristocratic Alsakani, who called the Perlemian the Axis, sought to supplant Coruscant as the seat of Republic power, and in 17,018 BBY, Alsakan led the Axis worlds in claiming a number of resource-rich systems to block the Grand Companies, the major trading conglomerates of the Spin. Coruscant and the Republic backed the Spin merchants, sending a fleet to the planet Virujansi and capturing it. Thus began the First Alsakan Conflict, a series of seventeen wars between the Coruscant-dominated Republic and Alsakan that spanned fourteen thousand years. The First Conflict was ended by the Bureau of Ships and Services in 16,700 BBY, though both Coruscant and Alsakan would be raided during the early conflicts, neither side ever achieved true victory over the other, and Corellia developed into a third galactic player as it excused itself from the conflicts.
In 15,500 BBY, Republic scouts encountered the enormous, fire-breathing reptilian species known as the Duinuogwuin on a planet in the Outer Rim Territories. Terrified, the scouts opened fire on the Duinuogwuin and fled the planet, returning to Coruscant, but the enraged Duinuogwuin followed their attackers back to the capital and attacked it in what would be later known as the Duinuogwuin Contention. The Supreme Chancellor at the time, Fillorean, refused to mobilize the Republic Navy and instead attempted to communicate with the massive Star Dragons attacking the planet—and to the surprise of the terrified Coruscanti, Fillorean was successful. The Duinuogwuin were actually intelligent and naturally peaceful, and the Duinuogwuin philosopher Borz'Mat'oh negotiated a treaty to end the conflict. The two later worked together to establish the University of Coruscant, the planet's first university, and the two were immortalized in a pair of statues fashioned from chalcedony.
The Pius Dea and onward
Around 12,000 BBY, the Galactic Museum was established on Coruscant, and it would serve as the galaxy's premier repository of historical artifacts for well over ten thousand years. By that time, a religious cult known as Pius Dea that worshiped a deity named The Goddess had been established on Coruscant for several centuries, and the cult's followers were known for their strict moral code and their emphasis on both spiritual purity and humanocentrism. Around 12,000 BBY, the Human later known as Contispex I rose to prominence within the Coruscant Merchants' Guild, and he became a leadership figure in the Pius Dea faith on Coruscant. Pius Dea arranged for the impeachment of Bothan Supreme Chancellor Pers'lya in 11,987 BBY, and his assassination shortly afterward, and Contispex I was elected to succeed Pers'lya as a result.

Under Contispex, the Pius Dea became the unofficial religion of the Republic, and he taught that communities could be restored to purity by purging "irredeemable" elements—and to the Pius Dea, alien species were the epitome of spiritual corruption. In 11,965 BBY, Contispex I launched the First Pius Dea Crusade, one of thirty-four military campaigns against alien species that would be conducted by Contispex and his successors, who formed the Contispex dynasty and took on the title of Contispex to honor the first Contispex. In 11,933 BBY, the Jedi Order departed Coruscant and returned to Ossus in the Recusal, as they could not decide what action to take against the corrupt Republic. The Pius Dea Era finally ended in 10,966 BBY, when the Jedi Order, Alsakan, and a number of alien species defeated the Pius Dea at the Battle of Uquine in the Seventh Alsakan Conflict.
Wars with the Sith
After the Great Hyperspace War, the Galactic Senate granted a vast tract of land on Coruscant to the Jedi Order in recognition of the Jedi contribution to the Republic during the conflict. The land, surrounding a Force nexus centered on a mountain, had been a place of worship for the Coruscanti for centuries. Many senators expected the Jedi to construct a fortress to defend the planet in the event of a future invasion, but while the Jedi Council eagerly accepted the land, it held to the belief that the Jedi were not by nature a military force. Instead, the Council authorized the construction of meditative centers and training centers, some of which helped preserve Coruscant's disappearing natural environment. Following the devastation of Ossus, the Jedi Council took up residence in the Jedi Temple on Coruscant, to which many Jedi relics from Ossus were taken. The Temple was greatly expanded, including the building of the original Jedi Council Chamber.
The Great Galactic War broke out between the Galactic Republic and the resurgent Sith Empire in 3681 BBY and lasted until 3653 BBY. Towards the end of the war, the Sith surprised the galaxy and extended an offer of peace to the Republic. Although cautious of the Empire's intentions, the Republic's Galactic Senate accepted.

While Republic and Imperial delegations convened on Alderaan for treaty negotiations, Sith Lord Darth Angral led a Sith battle fleet to Coruscant and initiated the Sacking of Coruscant. Their first contact was made with the Coruscant Security Force's Orbital Security Station Six which the Sith quickly obliterated. They then began their invasion of the planet. Sending a stolen Republic shuttle to the Jedi Temple, the Sith broke through and engaged the Jedi who were present as well as the Temple Security Force. However, the Jedi were overwhelmed and Coruscant's defenses were brought down, allowing the Sith to land their troops. The Sith took the Senate Building and the Supreme Chancellor was assassinated. Six members of the Jedi Council were also killed in the battle, while the Jedi Temple itself was destroyed.
With Coruscant securely in their grip, the Empire was able to take command of the negotiations on Alderaan, forcing the Republic delegation to sign the controversial Treaty of Coruscant. Although it brought an end to the Great Galactic War, the treaty set the stage for the Cold War, which would last a scarce decade before open conflict resumed.
At some point before 3600 BBY, the war with the Sith ceased, and the Jedi returned to Coruscant, erecting a new Temple in place of the old. This new Temple was repeatedly expanded, including in 3519 BBY and 2519 BBY when the Jedi Archives were built, and 1019 BBY when the Temple spires were finally fully rebuilt. The seventeenth and final Alsakan Conflict also occurred after the conclusion of the Sith wars, and in 3017 BBY, Corellian privateers inflicted a dramatic defeat on a Republic squadron at Coruscant. The Republic declared war on Corellia in response, but its forces were quickly outfought, and the conflict ended when Corellian Prince-Admiral Jonash e Solo dictated a peace treaty on the floor of the Senate Building.
The New Sith Wars brought turmoil again to the Republic. Beginning in 2000 BBY with the Fourth Great Schism and ending in 1000 BBY, the New Sith Wars contained 1,000 years of fighting between the Republic and the Sith. The Republic Dark Age that began in 1100 BBY was seen by most as a period where the Republic ceased to exist as its territory became a rump around Coruscant and the some of the Core Worlds. The Jedi took direct control of the Republic, bypassing the Senate entirely. The Sith were poised to take Coruscant itself only to be stopped at Ruusan. With the Sith armies thought to be completely destroyed, the Republic was rebuilt under the Ruusan Reformation. A new age began for the Republic, a time of peace lasting for several centuries.

Great Peace of the Republic

In 335 BBY, the Coruscanti government introduced granite slugs, a species of land mollusks, to the planet's undercity to aid in efforts to clean up refuse that had accumulated over centuries. Over time, the slug population exploded, and while the appearance of the paved areas in the undercity was greatly improved, the slugs also served as a food source for predators that had previously been contained. In 110 BBY, many Blood Carvers relocated from their homeworld of Batorine to Coruscant, where they became famous for their wood carvings. In later decades, Prince Xizor, a Falleen of royal blood, used his fortune as the head of Xizor Transport Systems to raze Coruscant's historic Farfalla skyscraper and construct a castle in its place from the sub-foundations up.

In 33 BBY, terrorist organization The Flail, accusing the Galactic Senate of corruption, disrupted public services of Coruscant, including commerce, communications, traffic, and weather, destroying property and lives while doing so. They were stopped by agents of Finis Valorum.
In 32 BBY, the violent criminal gang Black Heth started terrorizing the Coruscant Underworld. The Jin'ha group was supplying weapons, but the Jedi Padawan Obi-Wan Kenobi intervened and stopped the criminal activity. Later that year, Queen Amidala of Naboo escaped a Trade Federation blockade of her homeworld, and on Coruscant her attempts to persuade the Senate to aid Naboo were thwarted by bureaucracy and political maneuvering. In frustration, she called for a Vote of No Confidence in the embattled Supreme Chancellor Valorum, paving the way for Naboo senator Palpatine to take his place.
In 30 BBY, Jedi Masters Peerce and J'Mikel were killed by the bounty hunter Aurra Sing, who was wanted for the murder of several other Jedi, while searching for her on Coruscant. Xiaan Amersu, J'Mikel's Padawan, reported the incident to the Jedi High Council at the Jedi Temple, where a mission to capture Sing was organized.

In 27 BBY, Coruscant was almost destroyed by Ashaar Khorda using the Infant of Shaa. Jango Fett, Zam Wesell, and Yarael Poof saved Coruscant, although Poof sacrificed himself to do so. News of this averted disaster was never widely divulged, however. In the same year, Jedi Master Jorus C'baoth and his Padawan, Lorana Jinzler, interrupted a meeting between Supreme Chancellor Palpatine and his aide, Kinman Doriana, on Coruscant to demand more funding for C'baoth's proposed Outbound Flight Project. The sides came to an agreement that if C'baoth could resolve a mining strike on the planet Barlok, it would free up enough funds to finish the project, after which Palpatine ordered Doriana to keep watch over C'boath. Doriana returned to his apartment to pack and contacted his true master, Darth Sidious. After C'baoth received permission from the Jedi Council to travel to Barlok, Master Mace Windu ordered Obi-Wan Kenobi and his Padawan, Anakin Skywalker, to follow C'baoth to his destination.

Separatist Crisis

In 24 BBY, former Jedi Master Count Dooku reemerged on Raxus Prime and delivered an impassioned speech that presented the case for the Republic's irreversible corruption. Thus began the Separatist Crisis, in which thousands of worlds seceded from the Republic and joined Dooku's newly inaugurated Confederacy of Independent Systems. Westport, which handled the bulk of Coruscant's emigrant departures, experienced a 6,000% increase in traffic during the crisis, while Eastport took in masses of refugees from seceded worlds. On 13:3:6, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine announced on the general channels of the HoloNet from the Senate Rotunda that 5:16 would be the date of a full Senate vote on the creation of a centralized military to oppose the Separatist threat. On the morning of 13:3:7, a three-hour brawl between Houk and Weequay immigrants at the Eastport processing station left 15 dead and 45 wounded. On 13:4:4, a garbage launcher misfire destroyed four surrounding blocks of the cityscape and littered the entire Desrini District with dangerous industrial waste, which attracted huge numbers of scavenging dianogas to the area over the following months. Later in 13:4, the Coruscant Ministry of Ingress, in response to port overcrowding and the threat of Separatist terrorism, issued new restrictions on all interstellar traffic inbound to Coruscant.

Meanwhile, the Military Creation Act spawned increasingly vocal advocates and opponents, and on 13:5:9, large-scale riots were narrowly averted when the Senate Guard was dispatched to disperse crowds gathering at the entrances of the Senate Rotunda. On 13:5:16, an assassination attempt on Naboo senator Padmé Amidala was made when she arrived on Coruscant to vote against the Military Creation Act. A bomb destroyed her starship shortly after its landing, killing several of her handmaidens and guards. Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi were assigned to protect her, and during the following night they foiled another attempt at Padmé's penthouse by Zam Wesell, leading to an airspeeder chase which ended in a showdown at the Outlander Club, a sports bar and club in an entertainment district in the lower levels of the planet. The Jedi captured Wesell, but she was killed by Jango Fett. Kenobi's subsequent investigation of Wesell's death led him to Kamino, setting off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of the Clone Wars.

Clone Wars

In 22 BBY, the Clone Wars erupted when the newly created Grand Army of the Republic attacked the Confederate-controlled world of Geonosis. Coruscant experienced a number of radical changes during the galaxy-spanning conflict. Large swathes of the cityscape were laid low to make room for the construction of military staging areas. Millions of citizens were displaced by the urban renewal, most of them impoverished, members of alien species loyal to the Confederacy of Independent Systems, or both. Initially, there was public outcry, but such dissidence was either ignored or quashed. Acts of terrorism were also commonplace, with indiscriminate tactics such as bombings resulting in hundreds, or sometimes thousands, of casualties. Most were the products of Separatist cells, while some isolated incidents were of questionable origin. Assassination attempts on influential Republic politicians were common. Notable incidents included the raid of Ziro's palace after the Republic discovered the Hutt's affiliation with Count Dooku; the holding of Senator Meena Tills hostage by Korunnai terrorists which was actually cover for an attempt to turn the Corporate Sector against the Republic; and the Senate hostage crisis at the Republic Executive Building that was carried out by bounty hunter Cad Bane to free Ziro the Hutt. The year 21 BBY saw a wave of such disasters, including the Coruscant Insurrection by Count Dooku and Dark Jedi Trenox to steal a holocron at the Jedi Temple; the bombing of the freighter Star of Iskin that killed former Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum and thousands on the surface as a result of raining debris; a terrorist attack on a power generator that resulted in power outages and fires throughout the Senate District; the assassination of Senator Viento by rogue Jedi Quinlan Vos; and the murders of Senator Onaconda Farr and Senator Mee Deechi by Farr's personal aide Lolo Purs.
Also, at some point during the Clone Wars, there was an incident involving a Zillo Beast from Malastare. After the creature was transported to Coruscant by order of Chancellor Palpatine, the Zillo Beast was subjected to examination and experimentation. When Palpatine ordered its destruction in order to hasten the procedure, the Zillo Beast broke free and immediately sought vengeance on the man who was intent on killing it. As it rampaged through Galactic City, thousands of citizens tried to flee in terror while the Jedi and their clone forces scrambled to neutralize the creature. Upon reaching the Executive Building, the Zillo Beast nearly succeeded in killing the Chancellor, only for its efforts to be thwarted by the Jedi. Although they succeeded in killing it, Chancellor Palpatine discreetly ordered that the Zillo Beast be cloned to conduct further research.

Such incidents prompted the Republic to implement numerous changes on Coruscant in the name of increased security. Clone troopers of the Republic's newly formed Grand Army were dispatched throughout the planet on regular patrols as the capital's military guard. The fanatically pro-Human COMPOR was founded; the local SAGroup, led by Nenevanth Tion, marched in a parade of Republic patriotism on Coruscant. COMPOR pressured Tannon Praji into deporting from the capital all members of species whose homeworld had joined the Confederacy. Following the Star of Iskin incident, the Senate approved the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act, which allowed Supreme Chancellor Palpatine to strip civil liberties in the name of civil security. Coruscant fell under particularly heavy government supervision, with security becoming gradually tighter as one traveled deeper into the levels of the Galactic City. The planet's lower levels, which had once been a haven for crime and an unregulated market, became heavily subdued, such that illicit goods and services became difficult to find. While most Coruscanti were content with surrendering these and other liberties for security, the changes did not sit well with the galactic capital's alien population, particularly those that were associated with the leadership of the Confederacy. Many Geonosians, Muuns, Neimoidians, and Gossams suffered ostracization on Coruscant, while many others were forced to flee the world altogether. In addition, numerous rumors surfaced regarding antiwar demonstrations that were quelled with forceful measures, seizure of private property, and disappearances. As disturbing as these abuses of power were, proof of the acts was either nonexistent or easily discredited. Throughout the remainder of the war, the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act was altered by amendments known as the Security Acts, which, although intended to further enhance security throughout the Republic, also contributed to Palpatine's growing power over the government and the weakening of the authority of the Galactic Senate.
Despite the numerous precautions taken, in 19 BBY, on 15:5:20, the Confederacy of Independent Systems succeeded in making a surprise raid on Coruscant. Bypassing the heavily fortified Corellian sector by use of secret hyperspace routes through the Deep Core provided by Darth Sidious, a Separatist fleet under the command of the dreaded General Grievous took the city planet completely unaware. While the Separatist ships engaged the Republic home defense fleet, an army of battle droids descended upon Galactic City. The invasion distracted the defending Jedi and clone forces while General Grievous and a squad of his elite MagnaGuards captured Chancellor Palpatine. However, Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi succeeded in rescuing the Supreme Chancellor from the infamous Separatist flagship Invisible Hand. The Battle of Coruscant eventually turned in the Republic's favor, and the Separatist armada was forced into a full retreat. However, the battle had shaken much of the population, and large portions of the city had been decimated by falling ships or collateral damage caused in the vicious fighting.

At the conclusion of the Clone Wars, Chancellor Palpatine brought about the destruction of the Jedi Order by issuing Order 66 to all clone troopers throughout the galaxy from his executive office. In the Grand Convocation Chamber of the Senate Building, Palpatine announced the creation of his New Order to the Galactic Senate. With the Jedi all but destroyed, Palpatine proclaimed his intentions to reorganize the Republic into the first Galactic Empire, and thus declared himself Emperor. Meanwhile, Alderaanian senator Bail Organa, having witnessed the massacre at the Jedi Temple, transported surviving Jedi Masters Yoda and Obi-Wan Kenobi to Coruscant, where, at the Temple, the two Jedi dismantled a coded signal urging Jedi to gather there. Yoda later confronted Palpatine at the Senate Building, but failed to kill him.

Galactic Empire

Palpatine's rule

As with the Republic, Coruscant continued to function as the galactic capital, but was renamed "Imperial Center," while Galactic City was re-dubbed "Imperial City." While the planet's name was officially changed during Palpatine's rule, most working-class denizens of the Galactic Empire continued to call the planet-city by its old name. As part of the Humanocentric policies of the Empire, non-Human species were also compelled to live in segregated areas of Imperial City, the largest and best-known of which was known as Invisec. Those who did enter other parts, whether by intention or mistake, were punished brutally. Coruscant was also the site of the Imperial Senate until the body's dissolution in 0 BBY.

Emperor Palpatine also began to shape Coruscant with his own designs, and this included the installation of almost one million surveillance systems throughout the ecumenopolis. Massive shield generators were placed all over Coruscant, and where the shield segments overlapped, powerful storms would brew. Although Coruscant had always been known for its high concentration of thunderstorms due to rising vapor from the billions of buildings and homes, the increased frequency lent the planet a foreboding, almost Gothic look. Palpatine also arranged for the Executor-class Star Dreadnought Lusankya to be buried beneath the Manarai Mountains district. Later, the massive battleship was used as a private prison by Director of Imperial Intelligence Ysanne Isard. Palpatine also had the Palace of the Republic rebuilt and renamed the Imperial Palace. The Palace, a massive pyramidal structure which was by far the largest structure on Coruscant, was rumored to also be the largest building in the entire galaxy, with the possible exceptions of the massive Sharu plastic pyramids of the Rafa system. Upon the completion of the Palace, Palpatine ordered the construction of a smaller castle residence for Lord Darth Vader nearby. Although Vader already possessed a fortress retreat on Coruscant and several other retreats off-world, the castle would function as his main residence.
Under Imperial rule, illegal trade flourished on Coruscant, where the nobility coveted certain prohibited items, including slaves and banned artwork, as status symbols. Palpatine tolerated such activity, as it kept minor nobles occupied with their own intrigues and provided him with a means of blackmailing some nobles into his service. Around this time, the most prominent spice dealer on the planet was Wendell Wright-Sims, a wealthy socialite who operated with the express permission of the Emperor himself and took great pains to ensure that his product was the finest available. Most members of the Alliance to Restore the Republic considered venturing to Coruscant a foolhardy endeavor; nevertheless, Coruscanti resistance cells did exist, based in the planet's Factory District. Shasheva Astopone, the heiress to an exporting fortune, used her wealth to fund some of the local Rebel cells and smuggled goods to and from Coruscant for the Alliance through her business.

Citizens
Coruscant was home to a variety of species, though Humans made up the majority. Most of the planet's native species were either extinct or lived in the lowest parts of the Underworld by the time of the Old Republic. The planet was thought to be the home of Humans. Though not all well known citizens were always born on Coruscant, many considered the planet their home.

Government and politics
Political life and government on Coruscant centered around the Galactic Senate and its successor governments. During the reigns of the Old Republic and the Galactic Alliance, Coruscant was represented in the Senate. As the center of galactic government, Coruscant thrived on politics and the business of government. However, this also opened up huge opportunities for greed and corruption. The Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic did exercise some control over Coruscant's administration though he did not interfere with the day-to-day affairs of government. This practice continued well throughout the era of the Galactic Empire with the Emperor, but Moffs were placed in command over the mayor of Imperial City in the form of the Imperial Sector. During the New Republic and the Galactic Alliance, the Chief of State exercised overall control of Coruscant but stayed out of day-to-day affairs.

Until 27 ABY, Galactic/Imperial City, had a mayor who led the City Municipal Authority. Several of the planet's sectors also had their own local mayors and governments. The Yuuzhan Vong took direct control over Coruscant establishing a theocratic dictatorship without a local government. This lasted until the Galactic Alliance retook the planet from the Vong in 29 ABY. The Galactic Alliance then established the Galactic City Authority, which managed Coruscant's government and the planet's day to day affairs.
Law enforcement
One of the oldest planetary police forces in the galaxy, the Coruscant Security Force (CSF) served as the primary law enforcement during most of Coruscant's history, especially during the Galactic Republic, the New Republic, and the Galactic Alliance. It worked closely with the Senate Guard and the Jedi Peacekeepers during the Old Republic, but maintained ultimate control of policing the planet. This included regular patrols of the various districts and neighborhoods of Galactic City, criminal investigations, counter-terror, counter-espionage operations, crowd control at major events, and public disturbances, maintaining the planet's skylanes, handing out speeding tickets, diplomatic protection, and responding to a variety of other emergencies and situations.
During the later years of the Republic, foot patrol on the upper levels was mainly the responsibility of police droids, though humanoid and organic police officers were also present especially in the underworld police detective division, and special units. Special units existed for various tasks including SWAT teams, Forensics Unit, the Organized Crime Unit, the Anti-Terrorism Unit,, the Tactical and Operational force,, the Customs Enforcement Division, and the CSF's Traffic Division which was charged with maintaining order in the massive skylanes of Galactic City.

During the Galactic Empire, the Coruscant Guard was placed in overall command of Coruscant's security, but the CSF continued as a police force though subservient to the Guard. After the formation of the New Republic, the Guard was disbanded and the CSF were returned to their primary status which continued throughout the Galactic Alliance. When the threat of a new civil war between Corellia and the Galactic Alliance threatened the safety of Coruscant, several CSF officers joined the new Galactic Alliance Guard. However as the war continued and the GAG's methods became more and more brutal, most CSF officers left and returned to the CSF.

Public health and safety
Fire fighting, rescue, and cleanup was performed by the Coruscant Rescue Ops. Each planetary district maintained their own teams. Many Rescue Ops were poorly educated and underpaid, as their work was thought more fitting for droids. At the higher end of the Rescue Ops were Coruscant's fire-fighting teams; they piloted firespeeders, wore fire and radiation-proof body suits (including bronze helmets), and were equipped with fire-suppression backpacks that fed handheld hose-guns. These teams protected the endless urban sprawl from disastrous fires and explosions. Their duties were later continued by Coruscant Fire and Rescue during the Galactic Alliance.

The Coruscant Health Administration was charged with protecting the populace from various diseases and infections that could develop and spread in a large city. They also focused on issues of drugs such as death sticks and inoculations for new immigrants and migrants. They worked together with medcenters to ensure the general health of the population. However, the lower levels were mostly left to their own devices. Few had access to proper health care, police, or fire services. Most of these services were concentrated on the upper levels.

Entertainment and sports
Coruscant had many attractions to offer its visitors and inhabitants. Chief among them was the Uscru Entertainment District. In it could be found the Galaxies Opera House, a favorite location of then-Chancellor Palpatine. Coruscant was also home to the Coruscant Opera, Monument Plaza, and the Galactic Museum, all of which were popular tourist sites providing timeless entertainment and enjoyment.

Chin-Bret was one of the most popular sports on Coruscant during the last years of the Galactic Republic. The sport was played by chin-bretiers who carried pikers to play the game. The sport was most famously played at the T'Chuk Arena.
In 3 BBY, Coruscant hosted the Galactic Games. During the event, an assassination attempt was made on Emperor Palpatine.
Fauna
Fugitive animals were a large component of the city-planet Coruscant's "wild" fauna. Many exotic trophy species were smuggled in from other planets for the pleasure of Coruscanti citizens. Often, these creatures remained too wild or dangerous to be domesticated, and were either surreptitiously released into Coruscant's artificial environment or escaped on their own from animal traders. One such species were the narglatch, a species which made cute pets when young, though they invariably caused problems once they began to grow to maturity. Some of the more dangerous predatory animals even killed and ate their masters before escaping.

Though they were far from their homeworlds, many of these escaped species were able to eke out an existence on Coruscant. Some animals migrated to certain areas, like the wampas who adapted to Coruscant's cooler polar regions. The lower levels of Coruscant were infested by dangerous creatures like anoobas, saw-toothed granks, and veermoks, who feasted on garbage or on other creatures. Sometimes, these creatures made it too dangerous for the inhabitants of the lower levels to go out at night.

Locations
Senate District
The Senate District served as the de facto government capital for Coruscant. It included locations such as the Senate Building, the Republic Executive Building, the Galactic Justice Center, 500 Republica, and the Galactic Museum. Throughout the planet's history, the Senate District was the site of numerous battles in several wars including the Great Galactic War, the Clone Wars, the Galactic Civil War, and the Yuuzhan Vong War. During the latter, the District became the center of the Vong Empire with the Senate Building serving as the house for the Well of the World Brain, which controlled the Vongforming of the planet. After the war, the District once again became the center of political activity and returned to its former glory under the Old Republic.

Imperial Palace
The Imperial Palace was originally the Palace of the Republic. During the Galactic Empire, it became Emperor Palpatine's official residence and was drastically expanded, becoming the largest building on Coruscant. When the New Republic captured the planet, it was converted into the main government center and the residence for the Chief of State. However, it was destroyed in the Yuuzhan Vong attack, partially when Chief of State Borsk Fey'lya detonated a bomb in his office.

Jedi Temple
The Jedi Temple was the seat of the Jedi Order for thousands of years. Throughout its history it was damaged several times. During the Galactic Empire it was left standing, though a damaged and burned shell of its former glory. Luke Skywalker, upon re-establishing the New Jedi Order, built the Jedi Headquarters on top of the roof of the Temple. However, it and the Temple were razed to the ground during the Yuuzhan Vong attack. The Galactic Alliance rebuilt it as the New Jedi Temple, an exact replica of the old Temple, though with an added glass pyramid structure above. It remained this way until the One Sith turned it into the Sith Temple.

Coruscant's Underworld
The Coruscant Underworld was the area below the glittering skyscrapers of Galactic City. It was filled with crime and despair, but also with entertainment of various kinds. It was in effect, a world of its own, with many areas controlled by gangs.

Manarai Mountains
One of the few pieces of Coruscant's landmass that were left untouched were the Manarai Mountains, twin peaks that stuck up out of the ground near the famous Imperial Palace. The Manarai Mountains included the tallest peak, Umate. The peak contained many floating restaurants as well as Monument Plaza, and was home to the Flames of Umate cult. It was beneath the Manarai Mountains that the Lusankya was hidden. The mountains were destroyed during the Yuuzhan Vong assault on Coruscant.

Planetary defense systems
As of the Battle of Coruscant during the Yuuzhan Vong War, Coruscant had a four tier defense system. The first and uppermost tier was a series of mines. These were deactivated during the battle at the behest of Lando Calrissian, because he believed that they would do more harm than good, only to be reactivated by Calrissian later when the attacking Vong fleet was in the midst of the minefield.

The second tier was a series of Golan Defense Platforms, mostly Golan II types. The command platform was dubbed "Orbital Defense One" and was larger than its cousins. Most of these were destroyed when the Vong broke through New Republic lines, including Orbital Defense One.
The third tier was a massive planetary shield, controlled by a series of relays on the surface of Coruscant. The shield seems to have worked by some kind of dispersion of energy released onto the shield. The Vong employed a tactic which involved waves of kamikaze ships crashing into the shield, overloading the relays, and effectively bringing it down.
The fourth and last tier was an array of rooftop turbolasers, akin to the point-defense systems on some capital ships. Some were operated automatically, others by Human gunners and astromech droids. Also counted was the proton bomb in the Chief of State's office, which was detonated when Vong soldiers occupied the Imperial Palace. The explosion destroyed the building housing the office, and the data towers on Coruscant.




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